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Archive for the ‘Tools’ Category

User Error

Wednesday, December 28th, 2016

You Have More Control Than You Think

I’m a little reluctant to testify about things that could still go wrong, so I have been sitting on something for a few days. I feel like it’s safe to write about it now.

I have been exposed repeatedly to someone who has a persistent cold. I hate colds. I’m pretty sure I had one long cold from the time I was born until I was 12 years old. I was sick a lot, and it made me miserable. I hate the snot. I hate not being able to breathe or sleep. I hate it. I hate it all. I did not want to get another cold.

Over the last couple of years, I’ve had tremendous success, speaking defeat to various problems. It sounds crazy, but it’s very Biblical. For instance, Jesus told a tree, “May you never bear fruit again.” It dried up promptly. Jesus followed up with a famous saying which has not worked very well for Christians since he died: “Assuredly, I say to you, if you have faith and do not doubt, you will not only do what was done to the fig tree, but also if you say to this mountain, ‘Be removed and be cast into the sea,’ it will be done. And whatever things you ask in prayer, believing, you will receive.”

If you have a problem you can’t solve, you can say, “I speak defeat to [insert problem here] in the name of Jesus.” You have to have faith, and to have faith, you need to pray in tongues habitually. If you do it with the right preparation, it works surprisingly well.

Every day, I’ve been speaking defeat to this illness.

On Saturday, I started to feel strange. I felt the beginnings of pain in my bones. It was as if someone had draped a shawl over me, and everywhere a shawl would have touched–my outer arms, my shoulders, the back of my neck, and my head–I felt an ache starting up. I continued speaking defeat and looking for problems in my mindset or behavior that might open doors.

I started sweating, like a person whose fever was breaking. The pain went away. I never developed congestion or a runny nose. My throat didn’t get sore. It’s Wednesday, and I’m still fine.

I can’t say I have had no problems at all. For several days I had a strange sensation, as if I were enveloped in a cloud of someone else’s anger. I felt like something wanted in, and it was angry because it was forced to stay outside. I had problems sleeping on Saturday night.

One day my nose ran a little, but I had just sprayed a really filthy bathroom (not mine, I hasten to point out) with bleach. You can imagine the fumes I breathed.

Many of the emotions and drives we think are our own come from spirits. I know that for a fact. I remember walking into the National Holocaust Memorial and being overwhelmed by the grief of the Holy Spirit. It’s very common for mentally ill people to hear voices telling them to kill people they are not angry at. They kill their mothers, spouses, children, random strangers…the anger comes from somewhere else. One of the greatest rock and roll drummers shattered his mother’s skull with a hammer because voices wouldn’t leave him alone.

The fruit of the Spirit come from the presence of the Holy Spirit, so presumably, many of our viler drives come from loser spirits causing problems on their way to burn for eternity.

We have come to accept illness as normal. I don’t think it is. I think you get more power over it as you give more power over yourself to God.

David wasn’t well when he died, and Elijah died from an illness. We know Timothy had health problems because Paul said so. Does that mean we have to be ill? I don’t think so. Elijah made mistakes. He had to run from Jezebel because he ridiculed the prophets of Baal. Timothy probably made mistakes, too. We don’t know how many of the apostles’ problems were caused by their own errors, but surely many were. The Bible never holds any of them out as perfect.

A couple of weeks back, I looked into making a buffer arbor for my belt grinder. Every tool person needs to be able to buff things. I got on the web and looked into buffer safety. I found out buffers are extremely dangerous. A well-known knifemaker was killed by a buffer not too long ago. It grabbed a knife out of his hand and threw it into his heart. Buffers are scary.

I asked buffer users for advice. I wanted to know whether buffer accidents were inevitable or just the result of user error. Everyone agreed that buffer accidents are caused by bad practice, not some insurmountable characteristic of the machinery.

“User error.” That’s the phrase people use. If you run your hand through a table saw because you’re too cocky to use a push stick, it’s user error. It’s somewhat dishonest to call it an accident, because if you adopt bad practices, you almost assure that a disaster will occur eventually. If you willfully expose yourself to an avoidable risk, is it an accident when you get hurt? Not really. You consented. You ordained it.

I bring this up, because I have been thinking about it in connection with the problems we have here on earth. I believe most are the result of user error.

To make things more confusing, let me bring in the concept of inheritance.

The Bible says a righteous man builds up an inheritance for his children’s children. We always assume this refers to wealth. The truth, though, is that the best thing you can pass on to people is knowledge and wisdom, and that is most true of knowledge and wisdom concerning God.

Think of the way earthly inheritance works. Somewhere in a family’s line, a person who has nothing finds out how to get wealth. He works hard. He suffers. He has setbacks because of his ignorance. When he is old, he passes his wealth on, and his children don’t have to suffer as much or work as hard as he did. They do better than he did in life.

Knowledge and wisdom are supposed to work the same way.

People in good families pay attention to their kids. They don’t let them grow up untended, like weeds (as I did). They teach them how to do well and avoid pitfalls. God is a father, and he is a good father, not an inattentive or selfish one. He wants us to have knowledge and wisdom so we can avoid unnecessary suffering. He doesn’t want us to repeat the stupid mistakes our parents made.

When you learn about tool safety, you’re inheriting wisdom. The first guy who was hurt by a buffer probably didn’t have anyone to warn him properly. Ever since then, knowledge has accumulated, largely because of accidents in which people have been maimed. If you inherit the wisdom others accumulated with great suffering, you can make yourself safe. If you refuse, you get hurt just like they did, and you bring it on yourself.

When we suffer diseases and other setbacks in life, very often, it’s the result of user error.

The church rejects a huge percentage of the inheritance Jesus died to bring us. We reject prayer in tongues. We reject communion. We reject the fruit and the gifts of the Spirit; we feel we have to change ourselves. Like people who reject inherited money because they have the fantasy that they can be “self-made,” we want to make ourselves holy and earn God’s help.

We want to earn gifts. How is it a gift if you earned it?

We are supposed to be the earth’s nobility, and nobility comes through inheritance, not effort.

Healing and other helps from God are connected to confession, repentance, and obedience. Does this mean we earn his help? No, it just means we cancel it out by opening doors to the enemy. When you lie to God and pretend to be righteous, and when you habitually disobey him, you give other spirits rights. You drive the Holy Spirit out by dishonoring him. If you want the promises of the Bible to work, you need to make communion often. You need to admit that you’re responsible for the sacrifice of Jesus, and that you’re a taker, not a giver. God doesn’t owe you good things, and you need his help to control your flesh.

I still remember my friend who died from cancer. Everyone in my church kept telling him he was healed, but people got very angry when I said we needed to confess and get rid of sin and pride in order to close doors to disease. My friend was arrogant. That was just his nature. The church reinforced that. Now he’s dead. We invited God in one door and the devil in through another. God doesn’t like to share. He is “God,” not “a god.” He has to be given special honor.

One of the greatest things about having a good relationship with God is seeing other people inherit through me. There are a handful of people who have listened to me when I talked about things God showed me. Now sometimes I learn from them. They got things flowing, and they hear from God directly instead of waiting for me or some other human being to tell them things. That’s how it’s supposed to work. They will have better lives than I did. They will inherit instead of working. They won’t have to build up the same little stash of wealth that I did, all over again.

The church gave away inheritance a long time ago. Every generation starts over, in the dirt, and we die spiritually poor. If God manages to get some knowledge into someone, we ignore or murder that person. We don’t heal the sick very much. We only rarely raise the dead. We make the promises of the Bible seem like lies, because we rejected the knowledge that makes them work.

I’m very, very glad I’m not sick today. That’s all I can tell you. I can’t force people to listen or benefit. I plan to keep going forward, even if everyone I know dies in defeat.

I hope I don’t wake up tomorrow with a cold. That would be embarrassing.

Keep praying in tongues. Keep taking communion, with an emphasis on confession, repentance, and admitting you need help. Keep speaking defeat to pride and self-deceit. See what happens. It certainly beats giving a fifth of your paycheck to a white-trash liar in a purple suit.

Notes From the Grinch’s Workshop

Sunday, December 25th, 2016

No Roast Beast This Year

Christmas has not been bad. It’s just me and my dad now, but life is peaceful, and my relationship with God is rewarding.

I don’t hear from my other relatives much. My sister is not really part of the picture now, and the others just don’t contact me often. It’s always about business when they do. I guess I offended them in some way, but I don’t know what I did. My grandfather left a screwed-up estate, and that tends to create alienation among relatives, but I have never taken a dime or a single article I wasn’t entitled to, and the only time I offered to work for the estate, I refused to charge. Oddly, they chose a cousin who took 33 percent of the proceeds of his work.

Could have saved each one of them thousands of dollars. Whatever their reason for turning me down was, it must have been compelling. Or maybe they just didn’t think it through.

I did hear from one aunt. Her relationship with the others is not great, but I don’t have any problems with her. She was upset because Obama jabbed Israel in the eye, refusing to oppose an anti-Israel UN resolution. She believes God will punish the US because of it, and history appears to show that she had good reason to be concerned.

For years, Democrats ridiculed people who said Obama had problems with Israel, but at some point during his administration, the gloves came off, and now people admit he’s Israel’s enemy. No apologies from the apologists, however. No admission of error.

The Bible predicts that God will start defending God personally when all the nations of the world turn against it. Has that happened, with the UN resolution? I’m not sure. We elected Trump, and he appears to be a rabid Israel fan. Ordinarily, you would think that would count for something. But he got fewer votes than Hillary Clinton, an enemy of God from the word “go.” That counts for something, too.

I am not worried, because worry is wrong. Besides, my relationship with God is going very well, so I don’t expect to suffer as badly as other Americans. I’m not all over the web calling the Israelis Nazis and comparing the Jewish state to South Africa. I hope as many people as possible get it together and stop provoking God, but I’m glad I’m withdrawing from the mass of ignorant people who are doing their best to bring on disaster.

The day was productive for me, by my standards. I spent a lot of time organizing and moving useless items into places where they will not be in the way as much. I spent some time reading an old quantum mechanics text, and I watched a quantum mechanics lecture on Youtube. I did a couple of simple problems. I am trying to pick up bits of the knowledge that leaked out of my head after I quit graduate school.

I also spent time with my handy-dandy Radio Shack Electronics Learning Lab. I have been going through the projects and writing up lab reports, because reports help you learn things, but the more I got into it, the more I felt it was counterproductive to write things up. The material in the workbook does not lend itself all that well to report writing, and writing slows the process down by a factor of maybe ten. I started going through the book assembling and dismantling the projects one after the other, without writing anything. It seems to be the right way to do it. If I really feel the need, I can write about certain subjects, but I believe writing about everything will keep me busy until I’m 70.

It’s nice to do things right, but if you overthink and do them TOO right, you fall behind and never get anywhere. I wish I had understood that when I was in grad school. I felt like I had to understand everything, backward and forward.

I’ve been fiddling with the test equipment I own. I found out I don’t have a cord for my ancient HP signal generator. The resulting kerfuffle is really something. A thousand years ago, when it was made, they used a connector called the PH-163 or Belkin 17952. It’s sort of like a modern computer power cord connector, but it has oval pins. In 2016, a PH-163 cord will run you thirty bucks, not including shipping. Forget that. I ordered a male PC connector, and I’m going to rip the old connector out of the box, carve up the sheet metal, and put the new one in. I don’t even know if the signal generator works, so I’m not going to Sotheby’s to bid on a priceless antique cord for it.

My old Hitachi oscilloscope has a messed-up volts/division knob on one channel. It’s very hard to turn, as if someone put glue in it. I tried running Kroil into it, but it didn’t loosen it up completely, so I guess I’ll have to dismantle the scope and take a look at the pot/rotary switch/whatever behind the panel. I have no idea whether it can be fixed.

I’m also getting a funny display when I check the square-wave calibration function, and from what I’ve read, that means parts on the PCB have to be replaced. Fun, fun, fun. I don’t know how much effort I want to put into a scope that cost 50 bucks, but I plan to see what I can do.

It’s time to get a real scope. That means digital. I thought I might try to get an old Tektronix or HP, but people seem to agree that you’re better off getting a new Chinese job. I may splurge for a Rigol DS1054Z. They get raves. It would be nice to work WITH a scope instead of working ON it.

When people talk about the old scopes, they say they do most of what the new ones do, and the quality is better, but they also say this part burns out and that part quits working, and then you either have to become an oscilloscope technician or buy another one.

I don’t know much about it, but it looks like you can hit Ebay and pick up a 20-year-old scope that does what a modern Chinese one does, for maybe 40% less than Chinese. But is that a good idea? I saw a technical guy tear down the Rigol, and it’s no Alibaba toy. It’s built like Kim Jong-Un’s armor-plated underground end-game outhouse.

The Hitachi was fine when I was basically using it to see if I was getting any AC signal at all, without worrying whether the display was correct. I was working on tube amps, and that doesn’t require a lot of precision. I can’t get by with grossly distorted waveforms for the rest of my life. Sooner or later I’ll need to know what a signal really looks like.

I dread opening the box up and looking for problems. I’ll probably have to remove and store thirty knobs to get the front panel off, and they’re attached with microscopic set screws.

One of the big down sides to fooling with electronics is that you have to join forums frequented by guys who have never, ever, for very solid reasons, gotten a date. Some of the people are nice and helpful, but others think that because they’ve spent their entire lives staring at circuit boards and watching Japanese cartoons instead of engaging with human beings, the rest of us should crawl to them on our faces and shower them with offerings of Jolt cola and Skittles before begging their forgiveness for existing.

You really have to finesse them to get what you want without falling into the mud-wrestling pit. You have to know when to say, “Great. Thanks for the information,” when you have received no useful information at all and simply want to end the interaction.

I guess it’s insulting to humor and cajole people you could never respect, in order to get answers out of them, but you can only treat people as well as they let you.

Anyway, it was a pleasant, peaceful day. It would be nice if I woke up tomorrow and the half of my family that died from old age and cancer was still here, and we were all in Kentucky sitting around a Christmas tree, but things are good, and they’re getting better.

Overpriced Resistance is Futile

Sunday, December 18th, 2016

Joy Comes in Bags From China

This week I decided to bite the bullet and go through the projects that come with the Radio Shack Electronics Lab Learning Kit. I bought one when Radio Shack closed a bunch of its stores last year. It’s kind of a neat tool for learning about electronics. Cheap, too.

The lab is basically a breadboard (six columns) with various things you can connect to the components. Built into the lab, there are switches, an analog meter, a buzzer, and other things that can be useful.

I think the best way to do this is to keep a lab notebook and do reports. As a former physics teaching assistant, I should have no problem with that. I have to make up experiments, though, because the stuff in the Learning Lab books isn’t written for people who collect data and do analysis. The writer, a well-known electronics teacher named Forrest Mims III, just wants people to build stuff, see if it works, and move on.

I decided to do things like changing component values and writing small tables. Then I can compare the results with the mathematical formulas associated with the circuits. Short and easy, except when ineptitude gets in the way.

Writing things down is very important when you do anything technical. I say that as a person who doesn’t do it. I have suffered the consequences.

This isn’t the only thing I’ve done to amp up my electronics game. I bought a bunch of cheap components on Ebay. This was a genius idea I should have had ten years ago.

When you build circuits, you’re always in need of this resistor or that capacitor, and if you don’t have them on hand, you have to drive to Radio Shack, drive to a different store, or order the parts online. My local Radio Shack, where I used to shop for parts when I built current and temperature controllers for a professor’s laser diodes, bit the dust in 2015. We have an incredible electronics supermarket in Miami, but it’s expensive and far away. Ordering online is fine, but if you did it for every part in a simple circuit, your build would take six months, and buying one part at a time anywhere is way expensive.

I found some guy selling 1% tolerance 1/4-watt metal film resistors for $15. How many? Which values? Try 2800! All values! Nearly. You get like half a pound of resistors in a huge number of values. I also found great deals on film caps, Chinese ceramic caps, and a few potentiometers in common values. For the heck of it, I picked up some IC’s and sockets. Can’t hurt.

Here’s the rub: the resistors have thin leads. This doesn’t bother me, because I would much rather have a thin lead than wait ten days for a resistor.

The resistors arrived today, and I decided to check one. I was suspicious of the 1% claim. I don’t need 1%; 10% will be fine and dandy. But you want to know what you bought.

I hooked a resistor to a meter and heated it with a soldering iron. The value was 430 ohms. The resistor measured exactly 430, which was way beyond any level of precision I’ll ever need, and it didn’t move when I heated it. SOLD!

Even if the resistors aren’t great, they’ll allow me to build things without waiting, and if I have to, I can get better stuff to replace them in permanent projects.

Caveat: some guy on the web says he scraped the paint off his cheap “film” resistors and found carbon resistors inside. Not that a 1/2-cent carbon resistor that works is a bad deal.

The soldering iron is also news. Twenty years ago, when I got my Weller soldering station, I thought I was the coolest kid in school. I was used to pencil irons that weighed a pound and had to be placed in cereal bowls because they didn’t have stands. I started looking into different irons this year, and I found out my Weller was strictly low-budget.

It turns out you can pay a thousand dollars for a soldering station, and they come with lots of crazy attachments. Also, cheap stations don’t have enough power. They take too long to melt solder, and this can actually screw up your joints.

I thought about getting a Hakko. They’re very popular. But I kept looking, and I found myself a dream come true: the Ersa I-Con Pico. Yes, it has THREE names.

Ersa is a snooty German company (what a rarity), and they make high-end soldering stuff. The station I got is like their Maverick or Vega (remember those?). Still, it’s way better than my Weller or a Hakko. It has a digital display. It pumps out about 80 watts. It gets hot in ten seconds. Best of all, it has a tiny iron a little bigger than a pen.

The general rule with cheap irons is that they’re too long and too heavy. There’s no reason for it, as far as I know. It’s just a fact of life. It can be very hard controlling a soldering tip four inches from your hand. The Ersa’s tip is like two inches from your fingers. Beautiful!

I think this is an example of having a lame tool you didn’t know was lame until you replaced it with something good.

I haven’t soldered anything yet. The package just got here. On Sunday. Amazon is starting to scare me with their newfangled speedy deliveries. I half expect to wake up and hear Jeff Bezos singing in the shower.

In summary:

1. you need a pile of cheap electronic components from Ebay;
2. you need a better soldering iron; and
3. you should really try an organized approach to learning about electronics.

I preach to myself.

One more tidbit: if you have a cheap multimeter and you want to kill yourself because the Chinese probes won’t hold onto anything, spring for some Fluke spring-loaded probes. I finally did. What a difference. I had cheap Chinese ones, and the plastic flaked off until they refused to hold anything. I could have cobbled a solution together, but I bought new probes, and now life is sweet.

I think I may sever the Chinese probes, toss the ends, and attach alligator clips.

With my new soldering iron.

Hmm…I think that might be “cobbling a solution together.”

BTW, I found out how you’re supposed to make shrink tubing contract. They sell miniature heat guns for the purpose. You can buy a fancy “rework station” that includes a heat gun. I think that’s a stupid move, because one part of any all-in-one tool will always break before the rest, and often it can’t be fixed. So there you would be, with your fancy station, a heat gun that doesn’t work, and another heat gun sitting beside it taking up space.

And the new heat gun wouldn’t match the station, which kills the fun of the whole all-in-one ethos.

A company called NTE makes a small heat gun that gets good reviews. I may get one. It’s about $20. I’m tired of roasting my shrink tubing with a lighter.

Hope this is helpful to you. Probably not, though.

Today’s Minor Miracle: Welding Cast Iron to Stainless Steel

Saturday, December 10th, 2016

Explain This if You Can

I welded something successfully today, and I can’t figure out why it worked.

I bought a motor on Ebay. It had a cast iron base. The seller packed it badly, and the possibly resentful USPS people who handled it broke a foot off of it. I got a full refund, but I didn’t have to surrender the motor, and I haven’t found anyone who wants to buy it.

I looked into ways to put the broken bit back on. Ordinarily, people braze cast iron. It’s considered very difficult to weld (adding steel filler to it with high heat), because cast iron expands and contracts differently than welding wire, and the welds tend to pop as the work cools. To braze, you have to heat the part to something like 400 degrees. Then you melt bronze (I think) into it with a torch, and you cover the whole mess with welding blankets while it cools.

No way could I braze this thing, because if you heat a motor to 400 degrees, the windings melt.

You can also TIG weld it, but I don’t have a TIG welder.

I found some guy on the web claiming you can MIG weld cast iron with only a slight preheat–about 100 degrees–using non-magnetic stainless wire. You then “peen” the welds with a hammer or needle scaler to somehow or other counteract the problem with the welds opening. Maybe it expands the weld material horizontally.

It sounded nuts, but I asked around and couldn’t find a better idea, so I decided to try it.

Today I cut shallow v-grooves in the places where the parts met (standard when welding thick parts), and I cleaned them with alcohol to make sure there was no loose graphite on them. Cast iron is full of graphite, and supposedly it contaminates weld filler and causes problems.

I clamped the parts together with a Bessey clamp knockoff and started welding. Naturally I forgot to turn on the gas. The first two tacks were giant blobs that looked like sponges. I ground them down to start over, but I didn’t get all the crap out. Oddly, the welds held, and I was able to remove the clamp.

Someone on the web suggested using high wire feed. That was bad advice. Even after I turned the gas on, the wire spewed into the welds and made more blobs. I turned the feed down, but I never got it low enough to be controllable.

I also had trouble with my mask. I don’t think it darkened at all on the first two welds. I had to adjust it to the darkest level in order to see anything.

I continued making very small welds, peening, and waiting. That’s part of the technique.

When cast iron welds fail, they make a sound like “tink.” I never heard that sound. That surprised me, because what I was doing was sort of a Hail Mary job. I didn’t think it would work.

I got it welded up, and then I spent about ten years cleaning it up with the angle grinder and a rotary tool. A bolt has to go through the motor base, and that means a washer has to sit flat on top of it. The base will sit on a platform, so it has to be flat on the bottom.

Everything went fine, apart from welding very clumsily and making a mess. When it was done, I beat the part with the hammer’s handle, and I tried to pull it loose with my hands. I couldn’t budge it. I think it’s actually welded. It’s probably a D on a scale of A to F, but it’s not going to be under much stress. Maybe it’s not good enough, but I can tell you this: there is no way in hell I’m going to redo it until it fails again.

Because the weld didn’t fail, I’m not sure if I learned anything about welding cast iron. If it had failed, I would have known the method didn’t work. Because it doesn’t appear to have failed, I’m not sure what’s happening. Sometimes really bad welds seem acceptable at first.

Here’s something weird that appears to be true: it seems like it’s possible to weld stainless directly to cast iron, and that would mean it’s possible to build up stainless weld on a cast part. If that’s true, you should be able to coat one side of a part with stainless weld, make a stainless replacement for the other piece, and weld it to the congealed filler. If my weld fails, I plan to try that. Can’t hurt. Hey, it’s a free motor.

I don’t know what to do with the motor. I now have three pretty good motors sitting around doing nothing. The one I fixed is really nice. Maybe I could try to build a 6×48 belt sander. I don’t really need one, but they’re great tools to have. It would be nice to build one and have a disk sander on the side.

I wish I had some cast iron scrap. I’d practice welding it to see if my results could be trusted.

Also, it would be nice to improve the appearance of my welds. When I weld, all I see is arc glare and red metal. It’s blind luck if I hit the joint.

Here’s a photo. It may not look like it, but the welded-on part is aligned perfectly.

New Tool Knowledge

Saturday, December 10th, 2016

Try to Contain Your Excitement

I keep learning things about tools. It’s astonishing how much there is to learn about using the few simple items I have in my garage. People who really know tools must have stores of knowledge comparable to engineers.

A week or two back I created a new handle for my blow gun. Then something happened that required me to switch a tool from one air compressor to the other, and I realized I had a male fitting on the end of one hose and a female fitting on the end of the other. I could not switch tools without switching the fittings on tools.

This one left me scratching my head. Surely there was a right way to do this. Everyone else uses male or female fittings, but not both.

I kept thinking about the pluses and minuses, and I realized female was the way to go. If you put a male fitting on the end of a hose, the compressor will discharge every time you remove a tool. A female fitting will have a valve in it that shuts the air off.

Here’s the question: why did I have a male fitting on one hose? I must have asked about the correct fitting a long time ago, when I got my first compressor. I must have had the right information. My best guess is that I installed a new hose, ran out of fittings, and used what I had. Then I forgot to get a new fitting.

Anyway, whatever the explanation is, here is the answer: put a female fitting with a swivel on the end of your air hose.

In researching this, I also got into the subject of different types of air fittings. I know of three types, offhand: automotive, industrial (I think it’s also called “mechanical”), and universal.

In the past, I never thought about the type of air fitting I was buying. I just assumed they were the same. Then I found out about the different types, and I had a new research project on my hands.

Which is the best kind? NO ONE KNOWS. People do whatever they want. Believe it or not, there are regional preferences. In some areas, you want automotive, because that’s what everyone else has. In other areas, you want industrial.

To make things worse, there are rarer types. Some are supposed to provide superior flow.

A guy on a forum provided a great solution to my problem: universal female coupler and industrial male couplers. A universal female coupler will work with all male couplers. I went to Home Depot last night and got me a universal female coupler.

The replacement hose I bought is a Flexzilla. I agonized about which brand to get, and finally I decided to give Flexzilla a try. It’s bright green, so if you step on it, it will be a choice and not a mistake. It has no memory (I can relate). It’s light. I like it. If I hadn’t gotten a Flexzilla, I would have gone with rubber. Poly is too stiff.

I found out that machining coolants are more complicated than I thought. When I started, I learned to use WD40 on aluminum and Ridgid threading oil on steel, and that was about it. The other day I picked up a fantastic indexable end mill from Shars (where low-budget machinists shop), and I found that the finish varied, so I started looking into the problem. That’s how I ended up reading about coolants.

First, let me say the cutter is great. The big gripe with indexable cutters (cutters with several carbide inserts in the end) is that they give poor finishes due to minor differences in the heights of the cutting surfaces. I cut a piece of mystery steel, and the first 75% of the performance gave me an astonishing silky surface. Better than I could ever get with an end mill. The problem is that the finish got worse after that.

I am not knocking the product. It proved it can do a great job. I recommend cheap Shars indexable end mills. I paid a little over $30 for a 2″ mill complete with three no-name inserts, and it works. Check prices on American indexable end mills and see why I’m so happy.

I was cutting with a light application of Ridgid oil, even though a lot of people don’t use oil with carbide and steel. I read up on it, and I found a couple of sites that said interesting things. First, coolants and lubricants may be counterproductive. Second, it may be possible to grind HSS tools for aluminum that require no lube at all. Two different subjects (aluminum and steel).

One site said that liquid coolants chill carbide edges as they land on them, causing tiny stress cracks. Then the edges break down prematurely. The site suggested that the wear you avoid by using coolant is outweighed by the damage the coolant does. It said something about commercial shops spending 16% of their machining budgets on cooling and only 3% on tooling, which suggests the coolants cost way too much.

I don’t know if it’s true. I plan to throw some steel on the mill and find out.

Another site said clearing chips was the most important part of preventing finish issues. That sounds likely to me. The part I was machining had little swirling scratches on it, and I know they weren’t caused by the inserts. I think they were caused by bits of metal caught under the inserts. If that’s true, then I can get a beautiful finish on steel simply by blowing air on parts as I cut. It will blast the chips out. I think the oil may have made the finish worse by making chips stick to the metal.

A company called Kool Mist makes little devices that blow a mist of air and coolant on parts as you cut. I’m thinking I may get one and omit the liquid. It would blow chips away from my cuts. I’m positive I don’t need anything other than a light squirt of WD40 for aluminum, and it may be that I don’t need any liquid at all on steel.

I read that stainless is too gummy to cut without coolant, so I guess you just have to accept that.

To get back to the HSS/aluminum thing, I find it hard to believe that it’s possible to machine aluminum dry. It’s impossible with carbide in a mill, because the aluminum welds itself to the cutter instantly. I’ve never tried HSS dry on a lathe, but you can get away with carbide, although the finish is bad if you don’t lubricate.

I’m wondering what kind of rake I need to machine aluminum dry with HSS. Maybe I can find the info online.

I don’t think I want to machine that way as a habit, because I love carbide. You don’t have to grind it. Grinding lathe cutters takes a long time. Carbide inserts last forever in aluminum, and you can get a very nice finish. If I start messing with additional HSS tools, I’ll want to get more tool holders, and they weigh about ten pounds each. I feel like HSS is an answer to a problem I don’t have.

Why did I get into this quest? Because I failed at fly-cutting. A machinist I respect told me to fly-cut with high RPM’s, so that’s what I did with my mystery block. The edge of the bit kept wearing down as I cut. I had forgotten this crucial information: he was referring to aluminum, not steel. When I finally did it right, I had to turn the mill at about 100 RPM, which is ridiculous, and the finish was not that great. The end mill flies through work, and the finish is superior. Done deal.

Remember the treadmill my neighbor threw out? Probably not. I have the motor out, and I may want to machine the shaft to take a new pulley. A forum guy warned me about a potential problem. He said that if you take the armature out of a permanent-magnet motor (like a treadmill motor), the magnets will instantly demagnetize, resulting in reduced performance. Like life wasn’t complicated enough. He said you have to put a piece of steel between the magnets when you take the armature out.

This led to more research, and I learned some stuff.

In the dank, dreary past, many magnets were made from an alloy called Alnico (aluminum, nickel, cobalt, iron). If you shake it too much, it loses magnetism. If you drop it, it loses magnetism. If you take an armature out of a motor with Alnico magnets, it loses magnetism. Engineers designed iron objects known as “keepers” to insert in motors to prevent demagnetization when motors (or similar devices) are disassembled.

I found a couple of sites that said that Alnico is history (unless you play the guitar). Now cheap magnets are made from barium-ferrite powder, which can be cast in useful shapes. Barium-ferrite is supposed to be way less snowflaky than Alnico. More than one website told me it does not require a keeper.

The motor I have almost certainly has barium-ferrite magnets, because the next step up is rare earth, and rare earth magnets cost a lot. So I should not need a keeper (not the magnet kind). But the forum guy claims he ruined three treadmill motors just by removing the armatures briefly. So now I’m thinking I should find a piece of pipe and make a keeper, just to avoid the issue.

My small belt grinder has an armature that has been removed, and it works fine. I asked some electronics nerds on a forum, and they claim no keeper is required.

My advice: if you take a treadmill motor apart, use a keeper. Maybe it’s unnecessary, but it definitely won’t hurt, and it will cost you nothing or about two bucks.

What else have I learned? Let’s see. Belt grinders are fine for grinding HSS bits, but the bench grinder is faster, and it’s probably cheaper. Belts wear out fast.

Deburring…I learned about deburring. This means the removal of sharp burrs from metal parts. I have a worn-out belt on my small belt grinder, and I’ve been using it for deburring. It’s fantastic. One or two five-second passes will put a beautiful soft edge on a part. Try it. Don’t even bother with files. They’re for losers.

That’s all the earth-shaking information I have at the moment. I’ll leave you with a video of a guy using an indexable end mill to make a giant steady rest.

New Toys; New Projects

Wednesday, December 7th, 2016

Too Lazy to Post Photos

I have a few things going on in the shop. Figured I may as well write.

First of all, the woodturning tool rest is all finished. I haven’t used it yet, because I am thinking about dust collection, and I haven’t decided what to do about holding the tailstock end of the work.

When you turn wood in a lathe, you hold the left end in a chuck or some kind of spur, and the motor, which is at that end, turns the wood. The right end sometimes has to be supported, too. For that you are likely to use a live center. That’s a thing that has a point or some other grabby structure on the inboard end, to hold onto the wood.

To use my existing tailstock, I would have to extend the wood across the lathe’s carriage, and that would be a pain. I think I’ll make something that clamps in a tool holder. I’ll have to align it every time I use it, but how often will that be?

Dust collection is supposedly impossible with a lathe. You just reduce the mess as much as you can. I don’t have a dust collector. I have a shop-vac, which is made for a different job. A shop-vac makes air go fast in a small tube. A dust collector moves high volumes of air through a bigger tube. This is what I’m told.

Because there is no hope of good dust collection anyway, I think I’ll try the shop-vac. I plan to get a dust hood, which is a flat, rectangular piece of plastic shaped a little bit like a funnel. You aim it at your dust, and you hook a dust collector up to it. I think I’ll rest one of these upright on the lathe bed, with the hose going down through the openings. It should help a lot. At least it will get the big chunks.

I bought a two-tier welding cart, and I learned a lot about this type of product.

When you buy a Miller or Lincoln welder, you get a serious industrial product made in America, except maybe for the strange items Lincoln sells at Home Depot. I don’t know about those. If a cart comes with your welder, it will probably be a dubious item made in China, from Chinese sheet metal.

My welder came with such a cart. It works fine, but it’s not the greatest cart on earth. It’s a little short, so the tank bumps against the welder. Also, the sheet metal could be stronger where the tank sits. There are little locating tabs around the tank base, and they bend easily.

I also have a plasma cutter, which is similar to a welder in size and weight. It didn’t come with a cart. You can screw wheels to the bottom, but then you have a plasma cutter with no area for tool storage, and it’s way down on the ground.

I got an email from Eastwood, the company that sells reasonably good Chinese tools for working on cars. They advertised a two-tier cart. You can put a welder or plasma cutter on each tier, and it holds two tanks. The weight capacity is 350 pounds, I believe. It looked good, but it’s Chinese, so I looked at other products.

I found out that you can pretty much forget about finding a good US-made welding cart. Cornwell makes one (it may be Chinese, but it has Cornwell standing behind it), but they only sell them from Cornwell trucks. I’m not going to chase some guy in a truck. I ruled that out.

There are a zillion two-tier welding carts on the web, and almost all are the same model, made in China, rebadged. The weight capacity is not great, and they get mixed reviews. I decided to give up and go with Eastwood.

The cart arrived, and it took an hour to put together. It had one defective part, but I’m going to make them replace that. Basically, it’s a nice solid design. It has two shelves of fake diamond plate backed up by horizontal supports. The shelves aren’t bulletproof, but the supports are very strong, so the shelves are more than adequate. It has hooks for holding cords. It has tubes for TIG rods. It also has two trays to hold little items like consumables.

It will hold two large gas bottles, and it uses a wonderful system of sturdy steel hoops.

They must have had issues with the rear wheels and axle, because now it comes with a thick steel rod and two very heavy wheels with bearings.

I put my plasma cutter on the bottom and my welder on the top. Suddenly my garage seems twice as big. What a relief. I highly recommend this product. They say welders are supposed to build their own carts. I could not have made anything this nice, and the parts would have cost what I paid for the entire cart. Go ahead and make a cart if you want. I feel like I got a deal.

I would say the footprint of the cart is about 3′ by 2′, so it’s not small, but it will seem small once your welders, cords, and bottles are off of the floor.

In other news, a neighbor blessed me by throwing out a treadmill. I put it on my truck and hacked it apart. I came away with a 2HP motor and a linear actuator. There was also a lot of metal I might have used for welding, but I didn’t have any place to put it.

I am now working on a control apparatus for the motor. My first treadmill motor came with an MC-60 control board, and for that, all you need is a potentiometer. The current treadmill has an MC-2100 board. People on the Internet insist it requires a PWM (pulse wide modulation) input. I found a schematic for a simple add-on circuit, and I’m waiting for the parts to get here.

I’m thinking I’ll make a mandrel with a 1″ shaft and make myself a two-buff variable-speed buffer. Do I need one? OF COURSE. What don’t I need?

I did some research, and it looks like you want 5000-9000 SFM on a buffer, so I’ll want 8″ buffs and a fair amount of speed. The shaft has to be thick because buffers need long shafts, and long thin shafts wobble. With a long shaft, you have access to deeper areas on parts, and you can also mount sanding drums on the buffer.

Should be pretty cool. If I go through with it.

I also learned that you can use a 2×72 belt grinder to drive a buffing attachment. You buy a 2×72″ drive belt (not abrasive), and you make a buffing attachment that fits on the end of a tool arm. The belt drives the attachment. You can use it for anything that will work on a small arbor. It’s brilliant. Some day I want to try it. Depending on the VFD and the size of the pulley on the attachment, you can get a crazy-wide range of speeds.

Last thing: I’m turning a chunk of mystery steel into a bench block. I found it in an abandoned warehouse. It’s about 3″ x 2″ x 4″. I tried to fly-cut one side, and I learned this: fly-cutting is not for steel. With a 3″ fly cutter and an HSS bit, you have to do something like 90 RPM, and that takes forever. I burned up my cutting bit several times. With aluminum, you can run flat-out, but steel is not as friendly.

I suppose I could put a quality left-hand lathe tool in the cutter with a carbide insert, but for the moment, I’m going with an indexable 2″ end mill from Shars. I happen to have a box of TPMR inserts I bought by accident (no screw holes), and they will work with this end mill. It should be a lot better for steel, although the finish may not be fantastic.

A bench block is like a miniature anvil. You put it on your workbench and rest things on it while you work. You can put a groove in it to hold long things horizontally, and you can put vertical holes in it so you can drill things on the bench and go all the way through them. It’s a nifty item to have, and making it is good machining practice.

That’s about all I have at the moment. I may post photos later when I have more time.

More: Eastwood Rocks

The cart I bought from Eastwood had a minor defect, as I mentioned above. I got on the phone with them and told them about it. The cart has four tubular supports that hold the top shelf. Two are big tubes which are part of the cart’s frame. The other two are smaller tubes, maybe 5/8″ in diameter. On my cart, one of these tubes has crooked threads in the end, and it’s about 1/4″ too short. I had to shim it with washers to make it work.

Guess what Eastwood’s solution is? They’re sending me a new cart. They can’t pull the part and send it, and they don’t want the old cart back. Translation: free cart. I can fix the old one. It already works with the washer shims, but I can weld two ends in a piece of steel conduit and thread them, and it will be a perfect replacement for the defective support. I can even paint them black so the part looks OEM.

This is sweet. I don’t need two welding carts, but the cart doesn’t know it’s a welding cart. I can put my bench grinder on it, and I can put a buffer on the bottom shelf. I can put up to 350 pounds of stuff on it. I can even store extra gas bottles on it, if I choose to get into TIG or something that requires gases other than Argon/CO2.

Eastwood is kind of a neat company. They specialize in finding low-cost stuff that works reasonably well, and they are very aggressive about courting customers and making them happy. They’ve put a lot of self-help videos on Youtube.

I have a free 2HP motor, a free treadmill motor, a free linear actuator, and a free welding cart. What else do people want to give me?

Blow, Ill Wind

Sunday, November 27th, 2016

Five Bucks Buys You Nothing

I managed to make something in my shop today. Unfortunately, I was fixing something that broke, so technically, I came out behind. I spent time and materials on something that should have been working already.

I don’t care. I succeeded at something. This is the thing to focus on.

I bought a blow gun at Home Depot. It was cheap. It seemed like a great blow gun. The body of it was sturdy, and it appeared to be made well. Then I started using it. The first time I gave it any real use, the trigger broke off.

This was disturbing, because I had just made a major adjustment: I had decided to give in and use the blow gun on my machine tools.

People who use machine tools love to say you should never use blow guns around them, but of course, they all do it, just like everyone texts while driving. They say the air will blow crud into the machines’ workings and cause problems. That may be true, but guess what you get if you don’t use air? SPLINTERS. I have resisted using air, and I get metal splinters every single time I machine anything. I was tired of it. I decided to join the hypocrites.

The truth is that you can use air. You just can’t be stupid about it. Blow stuff away from gears and screws, not toward them.

I was machining something on the mill, and I used the blow gun to clear the chips before handling the part. I didn’t get a single splinter. I was able to get swarf out of places the shop-vac wouldn’t touch. The mill looked clean for once. It was great. Then the trigger ruined it all.

I took a look at the trigger. I was stunned by the cheapness. It’s literally like a plastic toy you would find in a cereal box. You could probably chew it in half in a few minutes. It’s flimsy plastic held on by a pin.


Yesterday I looked for a new blow gun. I hoped to find something decent locally, without driving all the way to Harbor Freight or Northern Tool, but my hopes were crushed. The only two major hardware stores in this area–Lowe’s and Home Depot–didn’t have anything I liked.

Today I decided to make a new trigger from aluminum. I had a square piece of aluminum about 4″ on a side and 1/2″ thick, and I figured I could cut a trigger out of it.

Sadly, my vertical band saw is not set up for metal. If you use a band saw for metal, you have to set special blades aside for it, because it dulls them, and after that you won’t want to use them on wood. That’s a hassle, so I don’t bother with it.

If the band saw had been available, I could have traced the outline of the trigger on the aluminum and used a 1/4″ blade to cut it out. Because I didn’t have a 1/4″ blade just for metal, I had to do the next best thing. I went around the tracing of the trigger with a big drill bit. The holes sort of approximated an outline of the part. I only did this on one side of the trigger, for reasons I now forget. Then I used a hack saw to join all the holes and free one side of the part.

To get the rest of the waste out, I mounted the part vertically in the mill and used a 1/2″ end mill to cut most of the crap out. After that, it was time for the belt grinder.

The belt grinder is a phenomenal addition to the shop, because I can shape metal freehand with it, very quickly, and I’m not limited to steel and iron. If you use a bench grinder on non-ferrous metal, you’re asking for an accident that could kill you.

I fired the belt grinder up and spent maybe an hour reducing the metal to the shape of the trigger.

When I was pretty close, I checked the thickness of the part. The opening in the gun was 0.440″ wide, and the part was 0.470″ thick. My answer was to mount the part vertically in the mill again and cut 0.025″ off the sides. I didn’t thin the entire part. Just the areas that had to swing into the gun handle.

After that, I put the old trigger on top of the new one and used a transfer punch to copy the pin hole location to the new trigger. I put a center drill in the drill press, measured the pin’s thickness, and used a #31 drill to make a hole through the new trigger. I used the center drill to deburr both ends of the hold so the pin would find its way in.

After that, it was just a matter of smoothing off the finger depressions, sanding down the marks left by the 60-grit grinder belt, and making the trigger look nice.

Now I’m done, and I have a perfectly good $5 tool that only took two hours and lots of work to fix. Somehow it seems like something there doesn’t add up, but hey, I won.

The gun still leaks air where the coupler screws in. I hope pipe dope will fix that. If not, I will have to take the blow gun outside and get medieval on it.

I have the tools for that.


The Purpose of Tools?

Saturday, November 26th, 2016

To Make More Tools

I’m having some fun in the shop today. I managed to accomplish two things.

My new belt grinder is very nice for what it cost, but it’s not a high-dollar industrial job. The people who made it are starter-uppers, and they aim at hobbyists. There are little things here and there that could have been done better. The tracking pulley is an example. It has been running about 1/8″ too far to the right, relative to the other wheels, and this seems to put stress on one side of the belt. I was thinking about making a new mechanism, but today I got it aligned with shim washers, so I guess I won’t have the fun of machining something new.

After that, I made a wrench for the tool post on my lathe.

My lathe has a big Aloris-style tool post, and the nut on top is 1-1/2″ in diameter. Naturally, the manufacturer doesn’t supply a wrench. Whenever you want to turn the post, you have to find a tool. Like a lot of people, I’ve been using a crescent wrench. It works, but it’s bulky, it has to be adjusted every time, and it’s not the right tool. Adjustable wrenches are hard on nut corners. The nut on my lathe appears to be hardened, but still. Wrong tool.

I saw this neat video by Keith Fenner, and I realized he was onto something. He had a wrench he had bent in order to reach remote fasteners, and he added a second bend to it and turned it into a tool post wrench. The video below explains.

There are a few benefits. First, it’s the right type of tool to turn a nut you don’t want to ruin. Second, it can be left on the tool post most of the time, so you don’t have to put it down where it will be in the way. Third, because he shortened it, there isn’t much leverage, and that means he’s less likely to torque it too hard and crack his compound slide.

Obviously, you can go to Northern Tool and buy a ready-made combination wrench, but where is the fun in that?

I decided to try this. I have little experience with using a torch to bend stuff, and it’s something I’ve been wanting to do more of. It’s a very useful ability. Also, with the belt grinder running correctly, I had the right tool to round off the end of the wrench after shortening it, and I wanted to try that.

It’s not that easy to find 1-1/8″ box end wrenches. Northern Tool probably has them, but it’s not a standard item at normal hardware stores. It turns out Home Depot sells a Chinese job for $10. It’s made for trailer hitches. I figured I couldn’t lose, so I bought one.

I put it in my bench vise, after cutting two pieces of aluminum to put between the wrench and the jaws. I didn’t want to mar up the wrench. I have brass jaws for this. But I didn’t want to mar up the jaws.

I know that sounds crazy.

I put aluminum foil in the vise with the wrench to deflect heat and protect the vise’s paint. Then I got out a MAPP torch and started heating the wrench.

This experience reminded me how much I need acetylene. A MAPP torch takes maybe 15 minutes to get a wrench hot enough to bend, and I still had to use a breaker bar. What a pain. But it bent. After that, I put the wrench in the vise in a different position, and I bent it again to make the second angle.

With the offset created, I put the wrench in the band saw to cut off the unwanted end, and of course, my Chinese saw threw its blade. It does that just for attention. I did get the wrench cut, though, and I put it on the belt grinder and prettied up the end.


It’s slightly loose on the nut. Chinese wrench. I don’t care. It will be very handy, and it was a fun project. I like easy projects. I don’t screw them up as much as hard ones.

It’s going to be a conversation piece. When average people walk into a shop and see a wrench with two 90-degree bends in it, they will want to know what happened.

I thought about doing this with a smaller wrench and using it for my table router. You need an offset wrench to change the bits. I have an offset wrench made by some company or other, and it’s made from steel plate. I thought a wrench might have a smaller shaft (whatever its called), which would give me more clearance between the wrench and router table, but it turned out I was wrong, so I’ll stick with what I have. If you don’t have an offset wrench for your table router, you should get one. Makes life much easier.

The wrench I bent turned blue in places. I can’t get it off. I assume it’s some kind of metallurgical change that goes below the surface. I probably messed up the temper or something. Who cares? It’s never supposed to be pushed hard, so it doesn’t matter. It would actually be better if the wrench snapped before the compound. But I’ll never torque it that much.

It’s fun to have tools and get stuff done. It was also nice to have this idea handed to me. Keith Fenner is a blast to watch. If you can’t apprentice at a shipyard and spend 20 years learning to do things the right way, his videos will help you catch up a little.

Nuttin’ Fancy

Sunday, November 20th, 2016

New Part for Woodturning Project

I finally finished the nut that holds down the woodturning tool rest I made for my metal lathe.


I started out using a 1/2″ nut and a washer, but the rest wobbled. When you use a flat washer to hold something down, the nut will deform it into a bowl and cause most of the clamping force to be concentrated near the bolt. The outside of whatever you’re clamping won’t feel much restraint. For this reason, engineers and machinists make washers and other clampy things with recesses in them.


If you have a washer which is hollowed out so only the rim touches the thing you’re clamping, the force will be applied as far out as possible. This is very helpful when you’re trying to keep something from spinning. Angle grinders come with flat nuts that have recesses in them, to keep the disks from spinning relative to the shafts.

After I started working on the nut I designed, I realized I might have been able to save time by using a nut made for an angle grinder, but that boat had sailed, so I proceeded.

I used a piece of 1.5″ 304 stainless round bar for the nut. I think it’s 304. I’m pretty sure it was a nub from a piece of 304 I bought. This particular stainless is a very nice metal once machined. It has good corrosion resistance, and it’s pretty. But it acts strangely when you try to work it.

For one thing, 304 work-hardens. This means that when you cut it with a tool, the part touching the tool can get hot from friction and harden up at the surface. In a second or two, you go from a nice friendly metal that cuts easily to a hard metal that refuses to give in. That means you have to be very committed when you cut 304. You can’t cut a little, slow down, check your work, speed up, and so on. When you pause, you may harden the metal.

Another problem with 304 is that it’s chewy. It doesn’t like to break. If you turn it on a lathe, it will literally make curly chips that shoot out behind you and extend six feet across the shop. That’s bad if the lathe tries to pull them back, because they’re razor-sharp, and there you are, between them and the machine. It also leaves huge burrs on things, so you have to use sharp tools or resign yourself to a lot of deburring.

I made this part using the lathe and a rotary table. I ripped my hand open on it while it was on the mill. At least I think I did. I was trying to indicate it in the 4-jaw chuck, and I was moving my hand around it. Suddenly I notice a half-inch cut in the back of my hand. I didn’t even feel it.

I put a 1/2″-13 thread in the nut, leaving the bottom 1/4″ of the bore smooth. I didn’t want a thread an inch long, because it would be hard to cut, and I wanted the threads to be on the upper part of the nut. I figured that would give the most stability.

I put it on the lathe to deburr it, and I used the drill chuck to get the tap started. I moved the lathe chuck by hand. I used Moly-Dee for lube. The tap got stuck. I couldn’t believe it. I put the nut in the mill vise with v-blocks and cranked the tap handle. It felt like the nut was full of sand. I added pipe-threading oil, but it didn’t seem to make much of a difference.

I got it tapped, but I was surprised what a nasty job it was. I guess that’s another 304 thing: jerky tapping.

I got it mounted on the lathe, and it works great. That’s good news, because it means my primitive tool rest design is a success, and I won’t have to start over. I have to go to Home Depot and get a longer bolt, but other than that, the job is mostly done. I have to put two threaded holes in it and add a threaded lever to clamp the tool bar thing (whatever) in place. That should be easy.


The hex on top was supposed to be 7/8″, but I made some kind of error and ended up with about 0.760″, so I took it down to 3/4″, which will work fine. I figured I should have the biggest possible hex so it would be hard for wrenches to beat it up, but this will do.

If you don’t make at least one emergency re-design during a machining job, you’re a fake. There’s something wrong with you. That’s how I see it.

Later this week maybe I’ll finish this up, throw a piece of wood on the lathe, and see if I have to call the EMT’s.

Hoping for the best.

The Sultans of Lathe Swing

Monday, November 7th, 2016

Plus Woodworking

I’m looking for something to do, so I’m writing.

It’s funny; to relax, I do something most people hate. Most people would lose their minds if someone said, “I need 1800 words in an hour.” To me, it’s like asking a cat to go sit in a box. Behind a keyboard is my natural location.

I thought it might be fun to tell about a few Youtube channels I like. They’re all related to tools in one way or another. I’ll do it in reverse order of how much they thrill me.

14. AvE. This guy is Canadian. To me, that means, “American in denial.” When the jihadis come screaming over the tundra from Siberia, he’ll start crying for American tanks to defend him; you just wait.

He lives somewhere near the North Pole, and he has no end of tools. I don’t know what he does for a living, but he seems to know absolutely everything about the tool world. Maybe he’s a mechanical engineer. Maybe he’s one of Santa’s elves, and he was discharged for using profanity.

One of his neat activities is taking tools apart to see if they’re made well. He looks at the quality of the plastic and tests the melting point with a soldering iron. He comments on the switches and fasteners. He checks the machining. It’s all great info. You can learn a ton from this guy. He is very, very smart.

Problem: his personality is so obnoxious it’s almost unbearable. He makes one infantile sexual joke after another. It’s like he has spent his life collecting prurient and scatological expressions. It never stops. It’s like his brain quit maturing at the age of three. It’s like listening to the internal monologue of a serial killer.

I can’t believe he’s married. Maybe he’s a different person around his wife.

I can stand him in short bursts, but I wouldn’t want to watch two videos in a row.

Here’s a video. I’m sure it’s filthy. Don’t say I didn’t warn you.

13. Wortheffort. This man runs some sort of school for woodworkers. I don’t know what the deal is. Maybe he’s a preacher or a social worker. He has a beautiful shop and some nice tools, and he clearly knows what he’s doing. If you want to bone up on woodworking, Wortheffort is a good choice.

There are videos that tell about his school, but I don’t watch them, because I don’t care.

His personality can be a little grating, but it’s not too bad.

12. Stumpy Nubs. The name is a little disturbing, and he lives up to it. In one of his videos, you can see his blood all over one of his projects. He’s a woodworker, and he has a mountain of videos. Lots of projects. Lots of expert info. Here is a video, chosen randomly.

11. The Wood Whisperer. This young man does fairly orthodox woodworking, relying a lot on standard power tools such as the table saw and band saw. Manufacturers give him free stuff to use. I don’t know if that affects his judgment. He doesn’t seem to have the transcendent expertise of some of the other Youtubers, but he does good work.

10. The English Woodworker. You’ll enjoy this man’s videos. He has an excellent presentation style. He is passionate. He is interesting to listen to. So why is he so low on my list? Simple. He went to a pay model. He has a few great videos on Youtube, but he started putting things behind a pay wall, and the price was not reasonable. He needs to lower prices or get a Patreon page to bring in income.

6. Baconsoda. This man is nuts. He’s Irish, so maybe it’s not entirely his fault. He’s a woodturner. He has a number of nice projects. Unfortunately, he has like 9,000 videos about other less-interesting things, like his potato garden, which he seems to find very exciting.

I did say he was Irish.

9. Robbiethewoodturner. See if you can guess what his hobby is. He’s another Irishman. Either that, or he has a horrible speech impediment.

He makes neat items on the lathe. Maybe not the most dynamic host on earth.

8. The Tiny Trailer Workshop. When I feel bad about being eccentric, I think about this guy, and I realize things could be a lot worse.

He’s a blast. He lives in the woods somewhere, and he has a tiny trailer with a little wood lathe in it. He composes his own music, and he uses it to score his videos. He makes all sorts of weird things. Sometimes they fall apart. Who cares? He has a lot of fun.

7. Carl Jacobson. Woodturner. He does meticulously turned pieces that show there is more to woodturning that cutting out bowls and slapping shellac on them. Very creative.

Now I’ll start writing about the people in my top tier.

6. Mike Waldt. I enjoy this man’s work more than the other woodturners. When he started, he wasn’t the most amazing woodturner around, but he turned that into a strength. He began shooting video as a beginner, and he kept chronicling his work as he matured and got better tools. His work is very good now. He talks a great deal about tools and methods, so if you want to try woodturning, he’s a good man to watch.

He developed Bell’s Palsy after he started making videos, and you can watch him as he gradually recovers.

5. Abom79. He runs the Booth Machine Shop in Pensacola. He’s a third-generation machinist. He welds, too.

He’s a real machinist, which means he feeds his family using machine tools. He takes real jobs.

He has some nice old tools, and some of his videos are about fixing them up. He has a 27-video playlist in which he makes a parking attachment for a K&T horizontal mill, which is possibly the coolest mill in existence. Don’t ask me what a parking attachment is. Just watch.

He makes mistakes; I wouldn’t say he’s a top-flight machinist. But he’s honest about his errors, and he’s patient with viewers.

12. Keith Rucker. He’s a volunteer at Georgia’s agricultural museum in Tifton. He collects old machines and gets them working again. He calls it restoration; sometimes it’s more like a paint job. Whatever. It’s pretty cool.

He has a barn-sized workshop at his house. He had it built. It isn’t air conditioned, so it proves he’s dedicated.

Last time I watched him, he was working on an old Monarch lathe the size of a VW bus.

His interests are very wide-ranging. He does trains, wood machines, metal machines…you name it. He is no noob. He knows some stuff.

His delivery has a halting quality which can get on your nerves, but still fun to watch.

4. Paul Sellers. You like wood? You like hand tools? This is your guy. He’s an expert woodworker with a passion for teaching. He seems to know how to do almost everything, and he is happy to pass it all on to you.

Some of the stuff he covers: refurbishing saw blades, sharpening plane irons. making bench dogs, building workbenches, hand-tool joinery, and using planes.

3. Oxtoolco. This is Tom Lipton’s channel. Tom Lipton has what may be the greatest machining job on earth; he works at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, better known as “the Berkeley Lab.” Berkeley U. has one of the nation’s top physics departments. They do lots of government-funded research. Big money means big toys and no brakes. I saw a video in which he gave another vlogger a tour, and I was flabbergasted by the size of the facility and the battery of megadollar tools it has.

He has his own shop as well. I’m not sure if it’s a business; I get the impression that it doesn’t make money. It makes my stomach hurt to look at it. It’s huge. It’s clean. It’s airy. I want it.

I don’t know too much about him, but he seems to be about as good as a machinist can get.

He doesn’t actually understand the purpose of some of the things he builds for the lab. He says sometimes they’ll run an experiment that lasts a few nanoseconds, and afterward, the physicists will look really happy. That means he did okay.

Here’s a great video in which he refurbishes a priceless family heirloom to get his mother off his back.

3. Tubalcain. Also known as Mrpete222, Tubalcain is a retired shop teacher. That means he will make you nervous. He has the archtypal crusty shop teacher voice. In fact, he has nearly the same voice as the actor from the old Lite Beer commercials. I think he’s the same guy. He’s just undercover.

Tubalcain has a nearly ideal life. He wanders around to auctions, buying used tools with his retirement money. Then he puts them in his shop and makes videos. He also buys and restores old tractors. Teaching must pay pretty good.

He machines, and he also makes his own castings. He doesn’t have any interest in woodworking. He calls woodworkers “wood butchers.”

If there is some simple machining task you don’t know how to do, chances are, Tubalcain has a video for you. Just make sure you sit up straight and wipe that smirk off your face.

Here’s another one:

I’m up to my second-favorite vlogger.

2. NYCNC. This is a channel run by John Saunders, a young man who didn’t know anything about machining ten years ago. He lived in an apartment in New York, and he wanted to make and sell an invention. Starting from zero, he learned about tools, and he started manufacturing.

Eventually, he was able to expand. He moved to Ohio and got a gigantic shop. It kills me to see it in videos. There’s so much room, you could roller skate.

He has a Tormach mill, and the Tormach CNC company is one of his sponsors. He makes all sorts of interesting stuff.

Why is he my second-favorite tool vlogger? For one thing, he went from ignorance to professional machinist in ten years. I’ve been fooling with tools as long as he has, and I’ve accomplished squat. For another thing, he has a great attitude. He loves what he does, and he loves teaching other people about it. There are better machinists out there, to be sure, but how many started in an apartment, ten years ago, from scratch?

For some reason, he reminds me of Bridget Fonda. Very distracting. Once you get that in your head, you keep seeing it over and over.

1. Keith Fenner. This man is the king.

As proprietor of Turn Wright Machine Works in Massachusetts, Keith Fenner does all sorts of machining and welding work for companies involved in various maritime pursuits. He makes and fixes prop shafts. He fixes rudders. He repairs cutless bearings. He puts new ears on backhoe buckets and line-bores them so they fit. He made his own gigantic purple wheeled log splitter. He made his own 50-ton press, with a chain-driven elevation adjustor you won’t believe.

His main tools are old junk, but he’s so good, it doesn’t matter. He has an old Clausing lathe and a belt-drive drill press which must be twelve feet tall. He also has a K&T horizontal mill which he repaired himself after he bought it. He has a CNC plasma table he put together.

There is nothing this man can’t do. If you bring him a cast iron pump housing with a big chunk missing, he can put new metal into it and machine it back to original specs. I am in awe of his capabilities.

I haven’t seen him do woodworking. Maybe it’s beneath him.

That’s it. That’s my Youtube tool pantheon. I hope you check some of these guys out.

The main thing is this: I feel much better now that I’ve written this. I spent three hours today dealing with a cable guy who literally knew three words of English (he didn’t know what “remote” meant), and I needed to get my mind off it.



Saturday, November 5th, 2016

Witness Me, Blood Bags

Sorry for the Mad Max references. I couldn’t resist.

What an awful movie.

To get back on track, I had a couple of good experiences this week, and I felt like I should share.

Since about 2007, I have been trying to become proficient with tools, and I’ve bought lots of stuff. Table saw. Three lathes. Milling machine. Plasma. I’ve had a lot of fun, and I’ve also done lots of very, very bad work. It turns out owning the tools is not the same thing as being able to use them. What an unpleasant surprise.

Sometimes I do good work, though, and I improve all the time. Occasionally, something happens that makes me feel like I’m making progress.

Lately, I’ve been watching a lot of tool Youtubes. There are some wonderful providers out there. They’re just regular guys, shooting video in their garages and shops. They do marvelous work (sometimes), and they share what they know. These Youtubes certainly beat the garbage available on network TV. I think. I don’t actually watch network TV, other than Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.

I’m not sure who hosts the current crop of late shows. I know Jimmy Fallon and that other guy have shows. I had his name a second ago. Kimmel! He has a show.

There are still some tools I would like to have. I want TIG and an acetylene rig. I want a surface grinder. I would love a CNC mill more than life itself. But from watching the videos and seeing what professionals get by with, I realize I’m not doing too bad.

This week, while I was watching tool videos, I had a wonderful realization: the guys in the videos were doing things wrong. They did things I could do better. Now that I’ve said that, I can’t say who I was watching, because for all I know they Google themselves.

One guy is a professional machinist, and he uses manual tools. By that I mean he doesn’t use CNC. He has been working for maybe 20 years. He has a huge TIG machine, a stick welder, and a bunch of machine tools.

He was making a part for a machine, and it was a long job. Lots of videos in one playlist. He did a lot of things I couldn’t do if you held a gun to my head, but he also did things I can do, badly. He oriented parts in inconvenient and inefficient ways while machining. He used the wrong tools for certain jobs.

I felt great about that, not because he screwed up, but because my perception of his mistakes showed that I had learned a few things, and that I was not as hopeless as I had thought.

He machined a long part, and I would guess the ratio of chucked metal to unchucked metal was 1:6. It was way out there. Ordinarily, you want at least a third of a part to be in the chuck, so it doesn’t fly out and kill you. I was practically punching the couch, hollering that he could just center-drill the far end and put a live center in it for support. It would have taken two minutes.

I watched a CNC guy do his thing. He has wonderful tools and a clean, spacious shop that makes me swoon every time I see it. I can’t believe he makes a living with that much empty floor space. You could literally roller skate in his shop. Anyway, he’s great with CAD, but when the time came to machine a part, he made workholding and locating errors I would not [necessarily] have made, and he sometimes did things the hard way. The part he ended up with was not that great.

I can’t mention his name, either.

It’s nice to feel borderline competent.

The CNC guy had a part in his vise, and one end was a few thousandths lower than the other. What do you do when that happens? You loosen the vise and bump the part until it’s level. Hello? You can use a screw jack. You can use a shim. You don’t just leave the part sitting there, because the measurement isn’t critical. Saying a measurement isn’t critical is like saying an ugly loaf of bread is “rustic.” It means “I am not very good at this.”

I’m not picking on him, because let’s face it: he knows a thousand times what I do. But it’s great to know I could have offered him a useful suggestion.

Now that I think about it, I had another similar experience. A guy was “restoring” (painting) an old lathe, and it took him forever to realize a wire brush was better than a putty knife for removing paint.

Why do people call paint “restoration”? How would you like it if you went in for a knee replacement and the surgeon painted your leg and sent you home?

If you’re not scraping or grinding your machine to remove the wear, you’re not restoring. Deal with it.

I love watching these guys. I learn a great deal every week. I even ordered a couple of their promotional T-shirts, to support their channels.

Maybe this week I’ll get back to CNC and make the lathe work. I’m 99% of the way there. I just have to conquer one programming glitch which has proved to be elusive. Then I can order a proper ball screw and make the lathe accurate.

Then I’ll still wish it was a mill. Oh well.

Guess I’ll go out in the garage and move things around until I can see the floor. Maybe I can get a few things done this weekend.


To make up for all the criticism, I’ll post one of the videos I’ve enjoyed. This guy has a hilarious, but typical, problem. A relative wants something fixed, and HERE YOU ARE, WITH ALL THESE TOOLS AND NOTHING TO DO.

He’s not one of the people I mentioned above.

Cult Movies and Abrasive Tools

Friday, November 4th, 2016

I Wish Mitch the Kool-Smoking Mormon Were Here

I have my belt grinder in more-or-less usable condition.

It was quite an ordeal. Jobs like this remind me of what Charlie Baltimore said in The Long Kiss Goodnight: “Yeah, well, that’s the thing about being a secret agent, Mitch. Nothing is ever simple.”

I love that movie. Brian Cox should have gotten an Oscar for the scene with the dog.

I ordered a metal box for the VFD, because you can’t mount a VFD in areas where metal filings and abrasive dust are loose in the air. Had I been aware VFD’s were so fragile, I would have ordered a KBAC VFD with it’s own little hazmat suit. I had to pay over thirty bucks for a metal box from BUD Industries.

The box had knockouts all over it, and you can’t screw anything to a knockout. I had to cut a piece of aluminum channel on the band saw and then turn it into an adaptor plate using the mill. I then had to drill and tap holes in the plate so I could screw it to the box and screw the VFD to the plate.

I got the VFD installed in the box, and then I had to run the AC and motor wires to it. That was fun. I had one knockout that refused to move, so I had to spend half an hour ripping it out and polishing the hole with a rotary tool.

The plan was to have this: 250V plug ==> cord ==> box ==> VFD ==> motor wires ==> VFD. I got it all put together, and then I had to deal with the control panel.

No one wants to use a tool that has a control panel inside a metal box with no windows. It’s a pain. Luckily, I had a VFD with a panel that detached. You can run an ethernet cable from the VFD to the panel, and you can put the panel out in the dangerous world of grinders and dust, where it’s easy to reach. This was my plan.

How do you run an ethernet cable through the side of a steel box. You don’t. You have to find a special coupling that has an ethernet jack on each end. You mount it in the box, and you run a short cable from the VFD to the coupling. Outside the box, you run a long cable from the coupling to your control panel.

Here’s the coupling.


Ordering this stuff is simple, right? No. First you have to know what to call the coupling. I finally found that out, and then I was able to search on Ebay. Almost no one in the US sells these things. I finally found one, and then I had to wait for shipping. I also found two cables at Monoprice, which allows you to buy cables in any length you specify. Neat.

Today I finished throwing it all together. I put the coupling in the box, and I ran the cables. I made a little aluminum mount and screwed it to the grinder platform. I screwed the panel to the mount. I was ready to go.

I did one other thing I’m happy about. I put a twist-lock plug and receptacle between the VFD box and the motor, so if I have to work on this thing, I can break it down into two major parts without opening anything up. Very nice. I love using twist-lock plugs on motors. I don’t know how OSHA feels about it. They are welcome to drive out here and give me a citation.

My final accomplishment was programming the VFD so the cooling fan didn’t run all the time. The VFD box is not vented, so a fan inside the box will actually heat it. Not good. Also, it wears out the fan. I found a programming parameter that makes the fan turn on when the VFD is hot. I have to wonder why that wasn’t the default setting. Why would a cold VFD need air?

I couldn’t find an ideal location for the panel, so I just put it in front of the grinder, out of the way of the belt. We’ll see if it blows up. Here’s a photo.


This is excellent. I now have an abrasive cart with two variable-speed belt grinders. What useful machines. I actually used them to make the aluminum panel mount. Abrasives are seriously underestimated. If you can’t grind and sand, you’re handicapped.

Now I guess I can make knives.

On to the next challenge. The excitement, as always, is palpable.

Your Car’s Paint is Crap, and You are Going to Die

Friday, October 21st, 2016

Car Paint Poisons Make Arsenic Look Tempting

This week I gathered information about car paint. It looks like the things I wrote a few days back are pretty much correct. Two-stage paint (base plus clear coat) is crap, at least when you buy it on a new car from a manufacturer that doesn’t care about quality. It WILL fail if you put it in the sun long enough, no matter what you do, and unlike old-fashioned paint, it can’t be fixed.

People buy expensive waxes and treatments, and they pamper their cars, thinking it will keep the clear coat from peeling. It doesn’t work. The only thing that works is keeping the car indoors. Good luck with that, if you have a big vehicle.

Last night I watched a Youtube video from Eastwood, a company bodywork hobbyists love. A professional painter appeared in the video, and he provided the information I relayed above. He said carmakers do calculations. They ask themselves, “How much money do we have to put in the finish to make sure it doesn’t fall apart during the warranty period?” Then they spend that amount of money (exactly) knowing their cars will peel.

Also, they like 2-stage paint because it’s easy to apply. It requires less skill. Here’s what Eastwood says:

Most antique and muscle cars were painted with a single stage paint from the factory where color & gloss is achieved in one paint. While more affordable and producing a factory-like finish, it’s also less forgiving. You will need to have good painting technique to achieve even color and gloss.

Evidently, they could do better if they wanted. Thicker clear coat would last longer, and they can put additives in it and apply it better. They choose to stick it to us instead. That’s highly disturbing.

You can walk down any street and see old cars with original lacquer paint that looks okay. You can get thirty or forty years out of an old-fashioned paint job, if you wax it and give it a buffing when absolutely necessary. But with all the progress we’ve made since then, you can’t make a new American car’s paint last even fifteen years in a sunny climate.

If you take your peeling car to a painter and have him fix it–$1500 and up–he can do a better job than Dodge or GM. Your paint will last longer. It’s hard to believe the manufacturers don’t even try. Evidently, in addition to skimping on clear coat thickness, they use water-based two-stage paints which don’t adhere well. If you go to a painter, he’ll use something with solvents in it, and the quality will be superior. So carmakers aren’t even trying.

The news gets even better.

The paint they use now is like epoxy. You have to mix it with a product that makes it harden on your car. That product is full of chemicals called isocyanates, and they’re so poisonous it’s a wonder they’re legal. You can develop a life-threatening allergy to them the first time you inhale them, and guess what? You’ve already been exposed! Unless you live in a hole.

If you’ve ever used Great Stuff foam, or you’ve been in your home when someone used spray foam in an attic or wall, you’ve inhaled isocyanates. You can develop the allergy and the asthma it causes years later, so you may have a nice present awaiting you.

Once the problem manifests, you’ll get sick every time you get near isocyanates, so don’t walk past a body shop if you know what’s good for you.

I’ve used Great Stuff many times, and I’ve gotten it on me. I had an A/C duct foamed in by a contractor, and they didn’t tell me to leave the house. I’ve mixed 2K (two-part) primer without a mask. I’ve sprayed it without a suit. Oh, well. Let’s hope I’m one of the lucky ones who doesn’t get sick.

Here are some horrible things I learned about 2K paint:

1. You have to wear a suit (with gloves) and use a supplied air respirator with a hood if you want to be safe. Charcoal masks from Home Depot don’t give adequate protection, although you will see people using them on TV all the time. A supplied air system will run you at least $400. It’s a little machine with a blower and a hose. It pumps air into your hood to keep poison out.

2. You can absorb isocyanates through any exposed surface, so if you’ve sprayed with any skin exposed, you’ve danced with the devil. Fabrics don’t stop this stuff. You have to wear something like Tyvek.

3. You have to wear protection even when you’re mixing paint, sanding dried paint, or cleaning your tools.

With all this terrifying information in front of me, I’m wondering why anyone would go near 2K paint. Exposures add up, and one day you cross a line that’s invisible. Then you have the allergy, and you may have permanent lung damage. It’s strange that people choose to paint as a career.

Here’s something weird: supposedly the greenies had a hand in popularizing isocyanates. There was some environmental issue with the older paints. It made the bunnies and flowers sad, I guess.

That makes complete sense, now that I think about it. If 2K paint kills human beings but saves snail darters and certain subspecies of cockroach, to a greenie, it’s win-win.

I was hoping to get my motorcycle parts painted. Now I’m wondering if it’s worth the risk. I’m also wondering if anyone out there is making any effort to come up with an isocyanate replacement that isn’t completely evil.

So to sum up: your car’s paint is probably garbage, and if you park it in the sun, it will peel off no matter what you do. If it peels, you have to do a complete paint job; there is no way to repair clear coat. If you paint it yourself, you will push yourself closer to developing a horrible allergy that can cause you to collapse and suffocate.

My truck already has some little peeled areas. I can’t even guess what it would cost to paint it. I feel like having it redone in lacquer or some other primitive finish. Nothing could be worse than 2K. Maybe it won’t be as shiny, but I never wash it anyway.

The Answer Isn’t Clear

Friday, October 7th, 2016

Paint Delamination is Now as Certain as Death and Taxes

You won’t believe this. I’m picking one of my old hobbies up again.

That’s so out of character for me.

A very long time ago, I decided to put new side covers on my Moto Guzzi. The model I bought came with terrible, cheap side covers that crack and fall off. The problem is so bad, some guy on the Internet makes money selling covers he makes from thick fiberglass. I bought two.

Problem: the covers weren’t painted. So I found a source of base coat/clear coat products, and I bought paint. Then I procrastinated for practically ever. Then I went back to the project, bought the correct primer, and primed and sanded the covers. I didn’t quite finish. I sanded through the primer in a couple of places on one cover.

That’s where I stopped. Since then, the project has been in the gravity well of the black hole where my hobbies vanish.

I was intimidated by the prep work. I hate painting to begin with, because it’s very hard to do correctly. I hated priming and sanding the covers, because it was a big, tedious job. I thought I would have to repeat it with the paint and clear coat.

Sadly, I was laboring under a delusion.

My motorcycle painting knowledge came from a set of DVD’s made by a motorcycle painter named Fritz. The DVD’s are really good, but they weren’t completely applicable to my project. I didn’t know that.

Fritz didn’t use clear coat. He sprayed his stuff with primer, sanded it, sprayed it with some color or other, sanded it, applied graphics, sprayed it with another color, sanded it…he did a lot of sanding. I figured I would have to do that with my base coat and clear coat, and that would be a lot of work. Also, I would be pretty likely to have to do a lot of it over, because I would surely sand through something.

I was thinking about it today. I realized the DVD’s didn’t depict the kind of work I was going to do. I decided to check something out. I Googled to see if it was necessary to sand the base coat in a base coat/clear coat application. Guess what? It’s not.

Car makers like base coat/clear coat (“BC/CC” or “2-stage”) paint, because it’s cheap and requires little skill compared to real paint. The primer has to be done well, and the clear coat has to be done well. The base coat is just slopped on. You don’t have to sand it, because (apparently) the clear coat covers the crappiness of the base coat surface. And supposedly, clear coat is thick, so you stand a pretty good chance of sanding and buffing it to perfection without blowing through it.

Personally, I do not like clear coat. It always, always goes bad sooner or later, even if you wax it, unless you never park in the sun. When it goes bad and peels, it can’t be fixed. You have to sand it off and replace it, and that means redoing the base coat as well. You can’t dissolve it, so it’s impossible to paint more clear coat over it, expecting the new clear coat to bond with the old. It will just sit on top, so in order to fix a small peeled area, you may have to repaint an entire hood or door.

That’s just stupid.

Old-style paint is different. If you screw up an area, you can sand it back and paint over it. If you have to completely redo it, you don’t have to fool with a clear coat. You just scuff it up and paint again. That’s my understanding, anyway.

Remember how long the paint lasted on your 1970 Buick? Remember how it didn’t peel after twenty-five years? Remember how it came back to life when you buffed it? Modern paint doesn’t work like that. It is 100% doomed to failure unless you park indoors. When it fails, you have to replace two finishes, not one, and you have to do entire panels, which generally means the whole car.

Many people think wax prevents clear coat peeling. That appears to be incorrect. People think clear coat peels because chemicals get to the clear coat. In reality, clear coat peels because it expands and contracts at a different rate from paint. Every time your car heats up, the clear coat and paint expand to different degrees. That puts tension between them; they pull sideways on each other. That loosens the clear coat. Then it comes off.

Wax won’t prevent that. Maybe it will block UV radiation, but it won’t turn clear coat into a material that expands and contracts with paint. Clear coat is plastic, like a billiard ball. Nothing dissolves in it. You can’t add a conditioner that makes it more elastic. It is what it is what it is, forever.

You can go to a junkyard in South Florida or Arizona right now and find a 1960 car with the paint intact, and you can wash, buff, and wax it back to a nice appearance. Try that with a 1990 car. I don’t think you will have much luck.

The two areas where two-stage paint seems to excel are shine and ease of repairing shallow scratches.

I may be totally wrong about this, but I don’t think I am. It’s very hard to get information. Car painters love 2-stage paint, because it’s easy to apply, and probably because they know it will fail and bring them more business. Manufacturers praise it because they sell it. Detailers and wax manufacturers love it because it gives them something fragile for their products to protect. On top of that, most people who talk about the subject are ignorant blowhards who repeat everything they hear without checking. If some uneducated doofus on a car website says wax protects clear coat, 95% of ignorant blowhards will repeat it and get angry if you disagree.

By the way, care to guess one of the big hidden reasons we use 2-stage paint now? If you guessed “EPA,” get yourself a cigar. Somehow or other, 2-stage paint is greener. It’s no surprise if it’s also inferior. How often do green alternatives work as well as the technology they replace? About as often as Mexicans buy Trump shirts.

Tonight I mixed a tiny amount of primer and touched up the bare areas on the side cover with a Q-Tip. That will make a lot of car nuts groan, because they think you can only apply car paint with a sprayer. That’s not true. It’s fast with a sprayer, but you can brush it if it makes you happy. I’ve already used a brush on the covers, and it worked perfectly. It sure beat mixing up a wasteful, expensive amount of primer to spray and then starting the compressor and air dryer and rigging up the spray gun. Ten minutes of effort as contrasted with two hours.

I’ll sand the cover down, and then maybe tomorrow (or not) I’ll hit it with the base coat and clear coat. I may wait until I come up with graphics; I’m not sure. I have to be ready with graphics when I spray the base coat, because you have to apply the clear coat within 24 hours of spraying the base. I want to have a plan before I go to work.

I look forward to getting these side covers off of my end table. They have been in my way long enough.

If what I’ve written is wrong, let me know, but please don’t be an ignorant blowhard. Don’t say, “Everybody knows…”, or, “I only use 2-stage paint, and here is what I think based on my limited experience.” Let’s have some science and engineering instead of mindless regurgitation.

Q: Who Owns the Night?

Tuesday, September 27th, 2016

A: Who Created it?

Last night I realized there had been a change in my life. I’m pretty happy about it. I am no longer having bad dreams.

For a long time, I had bad dreams most nights. To make things worse, I had the same dreams over and over.

Often I dreamed I was back in Austin, Texas, where I lived when I was in graduate school studying physics. I got burned out and quit, and apart from my childhood, it was the most miserable time of my life. I was separated from God. My prayers didn’t go anywhere.

In the dreams, I went back to my old apartment, which was, mysteriously, still mine. I would find huge rooms hidden in it. It was full of great tools. The space and the tools sound nice, but the apartment was a depressing mess. Things were piled up on the furniture; it was as if I had left in a hurry, after living like a slob.

In the dream, I had no friends in Austin. That’s what it was like in real life, unfortunately. The physics guys were very socially inept, and a lot of them were downright creepy. Some were full of anger, possibly because of all the wedgies and red bellies they received while they were growing up. In the dreams, I felt the isolation of Austin again.

When I went to law school, I had lots of friends. I still don’t understand the physics personality.

Sometimes I dreamed I was in a big airport, which I took to be DFW. I never actually got anywhere. I was just moving around in the terminal, as though changing planes. When you’re on a journey, you don’t want to spend an entire day in an airport. You want to board a plane, fly, get off, and do whatever you wanted to do at your destination. I never flew or arrived. I just walked, past endless book kiosks, smelly bars, and Cinnabon stands.

I also dreamed I was back in college. I would find myself walking around on campus, or going to and from campus. The disturbing thing was that it was late in the semester, and I had forgotten about one or two courses. I had dropped them, but I hadn’t filed the paperwork, so as far as the school knew, I was just failing. I kept wondering what I was going to do. I wondered if they would give me a break.

I hated these annoying, persistent dreams. Life was getting better and better, but my nights were unpleasant.

It wasn’t the first time I had been plagued by bad dreams. When I was young–say before the age of eight–I had nightmares every night. I would find myself at parties, surrounded by relatives I loved. When they came close to me to greet me, their bodies would twist apart so they were unrecognizable. They were impostors, sent to scare me. I also dreamed a pure white devil would come up through a manhole under my bed and torment me; sometimes he chased me in a van. He always had a big smile. Making a defenseless child suffer brought him glee.

My worst dreams took place while I was awake. I would wake up and see enormous bugs, snakes, and lizards climbing all over the bedroom. They were on the walls, ceiling, floor, and furniture. They crawled over me on the bed.

One night I woke from a nightmare and yelled for my mother. When she got to the bedroom door, she suddenly shrank in size, down to a height of two or three feet. It showed me she was powerless to help me. That was the point.

It’s wonderful to have peaceful dreams again. I’m not sure what the significance is. I believe spirits that have access to us give us bad dreams. I’ve been attacked by spirits during dreams.

Sometimes I wish my dreams were less vivid. When I’m awake, I remember visiting places that don’t exist. Sometimes I have to ask myself whether I went to a certain place or just dreamed it. It can be very hard to tell.

It seems like I’m going over a hump. Behind me, there were a lot of bad experiences I had to go through in order to be corrected and made strong. Ahead of me, there is more peace and help. I feel that way during the day, not just at night. I expect things to continue to improve.

If you lack peace, there are spirits behind it. You can count on that. If you ever get into the presence of God, you will feel overwhelming peace. That proves that anxiety and agitation come from the other spirits. They are not like him. Other spirits nag, threaten, and manipulate you. They try to make you afraid not to obey. God offers you peace and rest in exchange for preferring him.

You should always be aware that anyone who torments you in order to make you comply is doing evil. God doesn’t work that way. It’s beneath him. God wants free consent. He does not like coercion. Something to think about when other people try to get you to do things.

I would go further than that. If anyone has the power to coerce you, and they use it, there is a kink in your relationship with God. He is jealous; he doesn’t want anyone else to be your master or your father.

I don’t have complete peace, but things get better all the time. I have plenty of incentive to continue, and I have overwhelming incentive not to go back. Some ex-cons are willing to die before being sent back to prison; I feel that way about the powerless life I led before I started doing things God’s way. You can have this planet. You can have the prestige and riches. You can have the fame. Just give me my peace and power.